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调查:八成儿童家具不合格 安全标识落实不到位

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 易会满:科创板在发行上市披露等方面做出制度创新 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

热点城市房价短期内大幅上涨 高杠杆风险需警惕

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Song “The Spring Blossom” (Na Ying)
美国谷歌搜索2017排名前十
戴假牙的角色
undeniable
But that may be overly pessimistic, says Mr Talbot. “Things in Asia do have a habit of moving faster than we think,” he says.
汉口滨江的居民数周前就已将财产转移。
考虑到波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)管理合伙人理查德莱塞(Richard Lesser)的第二任期将于10月结束,该公司可能也将引来变化。然而,由于该公司拒绝就其选举流程及领导人最多可以有几个任期置评,莱塞的未来尚不明确。

n. 预定,保留意见
[k?n'tr?ul]
这是乔布斯从2000年6月到2008年9月的照片合集,显示了他健康状况的巨大变化。
A median forecast from economists had predicted a 0.9 per cent rise.
9) Well Done: It’s a cliché, no doubt. Sometimes, it isn’t enough just to say thanks. People want to know what they did was great and why. They pour so much sweat and soul into their projects.They need to know their work was special and had meaning to someone.

Footnotes

  • 24城下调公积金贷款利率 一线新房成交上涨
  • 是否有什么事情我一直放不下?我们不会总是能意识到我们在何时抓住有害但感觉安全熟悉的事情不放手,不论是一份不称心的工作,还是一段不健康的关系或者一种停滞不前的生活方式。看看你是否执着于对你没用的事情,想出小措施来改变和解脱吧。

Not a lot of Bond villains get their own theme song, but Christopher Lee's assassin from The Man with the Golden Gun gets a flashy, catchy, groovy tune that makes him seem cool as hell. (And of course, he is.) Lulu completely sells the awesomeness of the villain Scaramanga, and although the song may seem almost ridiculously upbeat today, it only adds to the charm.
Wardrobe malfunctions was another common theme. Some hapless interviewees “showed up in sweatpants,” one “was wearing mismatched shoes,” and another “didn’t realize his zipper was down.”
有时候,人们误以为这种冷静是缺乏紧迫感,而在瞬息万变的科技业,紧迫感至关重要。许多人对于Apple Watch今年还未上市感到失望。但分析师表示,苹果的风格就是一定要等到产品至臻完美,这常常会带来更强劲的长期业绩。三星(Samsung)的智能手表已推出第六代,但至今没有真正大火起来,其今年的智能手机销量也大幅下挫。
In 2015, the number of migrant residents living in Shanghai dropped for the first time in the past 15 years, Shanghai Television reported Monday.
Here are the 10 winners of the 2012 Ig Nobel Prizes given to scientists, writers, and peacemakers who make silly but thoughtful contributions to the world, or as the Annals of Improbable Research puts it, "first make people laugh, and then make them think." I can vouch for them making us laugh!
Song “Embrace Happiness”(Kelly Chen)

浙江网信办通报涉自媒体典型案例 两地产订阅号被点名 二更食堂永久关闭

References

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